Factory Reform

Factory Conditions

Working in factories in the 19th Century was not a pleasant experience, especially when some of the children were so young. Children were forced to work long shifts. The mills and factories were dirty, noisy and hot as well as being very dangerous.



Children started working in the mills from around the ages of 5 or 6 and usually started out as a 'scavenger' or a 'piecer'. Scavengers had to crawl under machinery to pick up loose scraps of cotton or wool. This was very dangerous. Sometimes children were crushed by the machinery, lost fingers or limbs or lost their hair after getting it tangled in machinery.



A piecer had to watch over the power looms and tie any loose threads that got broken by the machinery. Shifts often lasted for over 12 hours and standing up for this length of time left children with rickets (bowed legs), fallen arches (flat feet) and bad backs.


Flat feet - when  someone has no or a low arch in their foot

Power loom - meachine that weaves cloth

Rickets - illness caused by lack of Vitamin D and sunlight

Scavenger - someone who picks up scraps

Shift - hours of work


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